Friday, 20 November 2015


There are two basic compressor types: positive-displacement and dynamic.

In the positive-displacement type, a given quantity of air or gas is trapped in a compression chamber and the volume it occupies is mechanically reduced, causing a corresponding rise in pressure prior to discharge. At constant speed, the air flow remains essentially constant with variations in discharge pressure.

Dynamic compressors impart velocity energy to continuously flowing air or gas by means of impellers rotating at very high speeds. The velocity energy is changed into pressure energy both by the impellers and the discharge volutes or diffusers.

Positive Displacement Compressor
two types: reciprocating and rotary.

Reciprocating compressor

In industry, reciprocating compressors are the most widely used type for both air and refrigerant compression. They work on the principles of a bicycle pump and are characterized by a flow output that remains nearly constant over a range of discharge pressures. Also, the compressor capacity is directly proportional to the speed
Reciprocating compressors are available in many configurations, the four most widely used are horizontal, vertical, horizontal balance-opposed and tandem. Vertical type reciprocating compressors are used in the capacity range of 50 – 150 cfm. Horizontal balance opposed compressors are used in the capacity range of 200 – 5000 cfm in multi-stage design and up to 10,000 cfm in single stage designs
The reciprocating air compressor is considered single acting when the compressing is accomplished using only one side of the piston. A compressor using both sides of the piston is considered double acting.
A compressor is considered to be single stage when the entire compression is accomplished with a single cylinder or a group of cylinders in parallel. Many applications involve conditions beyond the practical capability of a single compression stage. Too great a compression ratio (absolute discharge pressure/absolute intake pressure) may cause excessive discharge temperature or other design problems. Two stage machines are used for high pressures and are characterized by lower discharge temperature (140 to 160oC) compared to single-stage machines (205 to 240oC).
For practical purposes most plant air reciprocating air compressors over 100 horsepower are built as multi-stage units in which two or more steps of compression are grouped in series. The air is normally cooled between the stages to reduce the temperature and volume entering the following
Reciprocating air compressors are available either as air-cooled or water-cooled in lubricated and non- lubricated configurations, may be packaged, and provide a wide range of pressure and capacity selections.

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